Immunization is the process by which an individual immune system becomes fortified against an infectious agent. Immunization is most commonly done through vaccination techniques. It is the most cost-effective, convenient, and safer way to produce immunity against diseases. Immunization is considered as most requisite public health intervention globally. It has a vital role in reducing child mortality and morbidity around the world. Most countries in the world have conducted Immunization Schedules and Programs for a better health care system in the country and preventing transmission of infectious diseases. Some of the vaccine preventable diseases are Measles, Whooping Cough (Pertussis), Flu, Polio, Pneumococcal Disease, Tetanus, Meningococcal Disease, Hepatitis B.
Role of Parents
The role of patients in the immunization of children is inevitable. Most of the vaccines are administered to the child when they are less than 2 years of age. So, Parents play a crucial role in the conduction of immunization programs successfully to ensure protection against many vaccine-preventable diseases in children. It is the responsibility of the parents to immunize their child. As the decision of parents in immunization plays a role in the immunization rate and development of immunity among children and prevents the transmission of many diseases in the community. Most of the Immunization program focuses on educating parents against prevalent contagious diseases.
Contribution to Community
Immunization protects children from diseases like diphtheria, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and many other contagious diseases. The positive attitude of parents towards vaccination helps to eliminate diseases and transmission rates in the community. It can also positively influence the behavior and attitude of other members of the community on immunization if a significant family is immunized. As immunization helps in the build-up of antibodies against a disease, it protects the children from contracting the disease even when they are exposed to it in their lifetime. It strengthens the immune system of the community as a whole by breaking the chain and providing protection for those who cannot be vaccinated. It prevents the epidemic outbreak in the community. It reduces the morbidity and mortality of children in the communities reducing the death rate of the country and is a positive health indicator.
Role of Health Care Provider in changing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Parents
With the development of vaccines against vaccine-preventable diseases, many questions have been raised about the safety of the vaccines in the media. It has become challenging for countries to run vaccination campaigns due to safety concerns, side effects, and compliance. It has become absolutely necessary for health care providers to inform, communicate and explain the importance of immunization in their children for their immune development and its impact on the community. With trust and proper communication with health care providers parent’s knowledge, attitude, and practice on immunization can be changed. Educational intervention is necessary to provide accurate knowledge and importance of immunization in a child’s safety and it is necessary to clear the misconceptions about vaccination. It is necessary to encourage and motivate parents to immunize their children as it protects against various contagious diseases and ensures herd immunity.